Puppies DAPP

Canine Distemper

DEFINITION
Viral disease principally of young dogs. Clinical disease includes mild to severe systemic illness with high morbidity and variable mortality (mortality often related to central nervous system [CNS] infection)

 

RISK FACTORS
Inadequate vaccination, exposure to animals with clinical or subclinical disease, transplacental transmission, and exposure of vaccinated but immunocompromised animals to an infected animal

 

POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS

  • Recovery from systemic signs of the disease may precede development of neurologic signs weeks to months later.

 

PROGNOSIS AND OUTCOME

  • Development of CNS signs is the most important negative prognostic factor.

  • Dogs with adequate immunity do not develop clinical signs, and they clear the virus within 14 days post infection. The incidence of late-onset CNS signs in these dogs is low.

  • Dogs with inadequate immunity develop mild to severe systemic signs and frequently develop CNS signs

 

 

Parvoviral Infection

DEFINITION
A viral infection that destroys the crypt cells of the villous epithelium of the small intestine together with lymphocyte depletion and neutropenia, leading to severe enteritis, anorexia, vomiting, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and shock

 

RISK FACTORS

  • Unvaccinated puppies or pups less than 7 weeks of age with poor maternal immunity; unvaccinated dogs are 12.7 times more likely than vaccinated dogs to develop parvoviral enteritis.

  • Exposure to high viral loads

  • Immunosuppression (systemic illness, cancer chemotherapy)

 

POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS

  • Intussusception or rectal prolapse

  • Septic arthritis or endocarditis

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome

  • Pneumonia (embolic, aspiration, or opportunistic [e.g., canine distemper])

 

PROGNOSIS

Without treatment, canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is often a fatal disease ending in severe dehydration, endotoxic or septic shock, and multiple organ failure. With aggressive therapy and supportive care, however, a survival rate of 85-95% has been achieved at our hospital

Viral Hepatitis

DEFINITION
A specific form of liver disease caused by canine adenovirus-1 (CAV-1) that can cause acute death or chronic hepatitis. Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) is uncommon in well-vaccinated dog populations.

 

RISK FACTORS
Nonvaccinated dogs. Resistant to environmental inactivation and survives for days at room temperature on soiled fomites; can remain viable for months at temperatures below 4°C.

 

PROGNOSIS AND OUTCOME

  • Prognosis for acute, fulminant infection is grave: animals often die within hours.

  • Long-term prognosis for chronic hepatitis secondary to adenovirus-1 is guarded.

  • Animals with hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and coagulopathies usually die within 1 week of diagnosis

 

 

Parainfluenza

Definition

Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) is a highly contagious respiratory virus and is one of the most common pathogens of infectious tracheobronchitis, also known as canine cough

 

RISK FACTORS
Increased incidence in dogs exposed to other animals with respiratory infection or housed with large numbers of other animals (shelters, boarding kennels, breeding facilities)